Learning Disabilities – The ‘Other’ Labels To Describe Dyslexia

Learning Disabilities often used to Describe Dyslexia…

Learning or Reading disability.
Reading disability or dyslexia is defined as brain-based learning disabilities. It specifically impairs a person’s ability to read. These individuals typically read at levels significantly lower than expected despite having normal intelligence.


Specific Learning Disability. (S.L.D.)
S.L.D. can affect how they; take in, remember, understand or express info. The most common forms are in reading and spelling. They may also be in other areas of functioning. This includes spoken language and mathematics. Individuals can present with a specific difficulty in one or more areas and have average or above average performance in other areas.

Auditory Processing Disorder. (A.P.D.)
A.P.D. is also known as Central Auditory Processing Disorder. (C.A.P.D.)
Kids with A.P.D. often don’t recognize subtle differences between sounds in words. Even when the sounds are loud and clear enough to be heard.

Visual Processing Disorder. (V.P.D.)
V.P.D. refers to a reduced ability to make sense of, and process the info. (Taken in through the eyes). A person with visual processing problems might have perfect vision. Problems related to sensory processing can take many forms including.
– Often, kids cannot find what they are looking for.
– Writing may be untidy.
– Difficulty staying on the line and spacing out work when writing.
– Visually distracted when there is too much on the walls.
– Distracted by movements in the classroom.

Poor short term memory.
Short-term memory is a temporary store for info. The info in this store will later usually be forgotten. If important it will be used in our working memory. Then it will be transferred to our long-term memory. Poor short term memory is often associated with dyslexia.

Poor working memory.
Working memory is the ability to actively hold info in the mind. This is needed to do complex tasks such as reasoning, comprehension and learning.

Language Disorder.
Vic. Gov. Better Health reports it’s estimated between 3-5% of kids have a receptive or expressive language disorder. Or a mixture of both.
Other names for include; C.A.P.D. and comprehension deficit.
There is no standard set of symptoms that indicates receptive language disorder. This is since it varies from one child to the next. Symptoms may include:
– Not seeming to listen when they are spoken to.
– Lack of interest when story books are read to them.
– Inability to understand complicated sentences.
– Difficulty following verbal instructions.
– Parroting words or phrases.
– Have language skills below the expected level for their age.

Poor linear, sequential organisation.
Kids with this have difficulty learning rules and understanding consequences. They may struggle with instructions and remembering what they have read. At home, they might be poor self organisers and take a long time to do everyday tasks. Things like getting dressed or brushing teeth.

Visual-spatial learner.
There are two types of gifted visual-spatial learners.
The first is kids identified as gifted who score extremely high on an I.Q. test. This is due to their great ability both with tasks using visual-spatial processing and those requiring auditory-sequential thinking processes.
The second is kids who are brighter than their I.Q. scores. They have great ability in visual-spatial processing but marked weaknesses in auditory-sequential processing.
These kids are often not identified as gifted. They struggle at school because their intelligence is not recognised. Neither is their unique learning style.

Developmental Dyslexia.
Difficulty separating relevant auditory info from competing noise.

Alexia (Acquired Dyslexia).
Sometimes also called acquired dyslexia. It refers to the loss of a previous ability to read.

Dysphonesia.
Difficulty connecting sounds to symbols. They might find it difficult sounding out words. Spelling errors would show very poor use of phonetic de-coding.

Dyseidesia.
A good grasp of phonetic concepts. Great difficulty with whole word recognition and spelling. They will have trouble with the sight words.
Unfortunately, the phonics-based programs will not help the ‘dyseidetic’ dyslexic at all.
It will only increase confusion. The child is being drilled on what they already know, without being given a means to develop whole-word recognition skills.
This is also sometimes called “surface” or “visual” dyslexia.”


Does your child have one of these learning disabilities? If so it is time to take action. Do they do special education at school? If they have had a remedial tutor and continue to struggle, there is help and hope. Don’t wait another year. Contact us. The worst thing you can do is wait! Learning disabilities do not have to be a disability.

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Tom MullallyLearning Disabilities – The ‘Other’ Labels To Describe Dyslexia